Discharge between periods is normally transparent and does not have any foul smell. Presence of blood gives the discharge pink, brown or purple coloring (depending on the ratio of blood and cervical mucus, diluting it). There are several physiological and a number of pathological causes for this phenomenon. Bleeding may occur on a certain day of the cycle (for example, during ovulation), or it may be unrelated to it.
Bloody discharge 2 weeks after period
In the middle of the menstrual cycle, the level of estrogen reaches its top, and this is when ovulation occurs. Some minor vessels may be affected during the emergence of the ovum from the matured follicle. Therefore, profuse sticky mucous discharge from the vagina, typical to this period, acquires pink coloring. Such spotting lasts for no more than 3 days while the volume of blood loss is highly insignificant. It is possible for women to experience pricking and dragging abdominal pain, particularly from the side of the ovulating ovary.
Spotting before period
The second stage of implantation – actual invasion of the ovum into endometrium (thickness of the uterine mucous membrane) takes place immediately before the period (a few days prior to its due time). Sometimes this process is accompanied by bleeding. It also doesn’t exceed the period of 3 days, is never profuse, painful or causing discomfort. One of the characteristic features of implantation bleeding is that women may experience early pregnancy symptoms immediately after it. Among such symptoms are sickness, taste disturbance, chronic fatigue, sleepiness, etc., which indicate to successful prolongation of childbearing.
Brown discharge with no relation to the cycle
Very often, bleeding between periods takes the form of slight spotting – brown spots on the underwear. Such a phenomenon is considered normal exclusively in the period of adjustment to new hormonal contraceptives. Adjustment determined bleeding is also characterized by short duration and insignificant volume. It is usually painless and goes in line with non acute cramps. However the period, which is considered normal for the adjustment to the new type of contraception, is no longer than 3-6 months.
Pathological causes of brown discharge:
- Related to making sex: micro traumas, sexually transmitted diseases;
- Related to undiagnosed pregnancy: disturbed course of childbearing;
- Nonmalignant and malignant diseases of the reproductive system: polyps, myomas, uterine leiomyomas, erosion, cervical cancer, endometriosis (proliferation of mucous lining out of the uterine cavity), adenomyosis (invasion of endometrial lining into the muscular layer of the uterus);
- General somatic diseases: endocrine pathologies, including hypothyroidism (thyroid deficiency) and polycystic ovary syndrome, as well as blood changes – coagulation problems, including such, which is associated with the intake of certain drugs.
Regularity and persistence of such bloody discharge are not subject to calculation. Very often it leads to chronic anemia and exhaustion of the female organism (this especially refers to points 3-4).
Bleeding before or after period
Significant amount of bloody vaginal discharge is a much more virulent condition, which often takes an intense course and is threatening not only to the health, but also to the life of the patient. This particularly refers to breakthrough bleeding, which requires immediate hospitalization and in some cases it appears an indication for immediate curettement and even extirpation (removal) of the uterus. Apart from the mentioned factors occurrence of brown discharge, which can also be complicated by intense bleeding (for example, oncological pathologies of the uterus and the cervix, endometriosis and others), this symptom may be caused by:
- Acute inflammation of the endometrium (endometriosis), uterine adnexas (salpingitis) and other pelvic organs;
- Bleeding on the background of anovulatory cycles (this is, in fact, bleeding after very long delay or a few scanty periods in a row), including such, that appears as a side effect of certain hormonal drugs;
- Apoplexy (necrosis and decomposition) of the ovary or abruption of a cyst;
- Disturbance of ectopic pregnancy or fetation pathology – hydatidiform mole;
- Dysfunctional uterine bleeding – a stand-alone pathology, typical to periods of endocrine alterations (the first periods and menopause), is characterized by bloody discharge of various periodicity and intensity. The exact cause of this pathology is not yet established.
Thus, bleeding or brown discharge are more likely to point to a certain pathology, rather than constitute a norm. In order to know which is the case, one should pay attention to the duration, intensity of blood loss and the repetition factor in its occurrence, as well as concomitant symptoms, including the presence of other admixtures (matter) in the discharge. You should visit a gynecologist in case at least one of the mentioned factors puts you on alert. A timely revealed disease, as a rule, is much easier to be treated.